English for Academic Purposes - Information Sheets

English for Academic Purposes Information Sheet

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22750 version 4: Write a crafted text for a specified audience using researched material in English for an academic purpose

Published February 2020. This is a new document to replace previous clarifications and address issues that have arisen from moderation and the update to Version 4 of the standard.

Level of the standard: Guidance Information 2

This standard is set at New Zealand Qualifications Framework level 4 and is informed by level mid-B2 of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. It standard attests to a learner’s readiness for the academic demands of undergraduate degree or diploma courses.

Academic purpose: Guidance Information 9 and Performance Criterion 1.1

The learner’s written text will address an academic purpose that is based on their own reading of material that is published in English. It is not a write up of a learner's own experiment, or an opinion piece based on the learner's own experiences/ideas unsupported by academic reading. The reading could be linked to research in any subject area.

An appropriate academic purpose is essential and must give learners scope to meet all performance criteria of the standard. Learners need a research question that will enable the development of sufficiently complex ideas, going beyond summarising of resource material. For example, ‘What is the history of the Olympic Games?’ provides insufficient focus for the development of ideas. The Assessment Support Material provides an example of a suitable research question.

Giving guidance: Guidance Information 6

The intention of this Guidance Information (GI) is not to limit the number of drafts that a learner may produce, but to indicate that learners should be given appropriate feedback to ensure that they are on the right track as they work through the writing process.

Guidance given by assessors must not make any written or verbal adjustments, nor identify and comment on individual errors. Feedback from assessors, peers or others must not compromise the authenticity of the learner work.

Independent demonstration: Guidance Information 7 - dictionaries and electronic devices

Learners may use monolingual or bilingual dictionaries. Standard spelling and grammar checkers can also be used in word processing. Other grammar check programmes and electronic devices, such as translators and translator apps on cell phones, are not permitted, as these may compromise the learner’s ability to demonstrate independent competence.

Writing for a specified audience: Outcome 1 and Performance Criterion 1.1

The audience for the written text should be made explicit to the learner and be evident in the external moderation submission. As learners craft a text, they need to be mindful that they are writing for that specific audience and purpose, following the conventions of text type and register. Academic essay and report writing should follow the formal writing conventions of that academic discipline.

Development of ideas from a broad knowledge base: Performance Criterion 1.2

Learners need to demonstrate that the ideas developed are based on their research. The texts read need to contain ideas of sufficient complexity to allow learners to develop an effective discussion. This includes features such as theoretical concepts, analysis and/or judgements that are informed by the source material. If only one source is used, it needs to be sufficiently comprehensive and have enough depth to provide a broad knowledge base. Wikipedia is not an appropriate source in an academic context.

Text Structure: Performance Criterion 1.3

The crafted text should be structured according to the conventions of the text type for the specified academic purpose and audience. If learners are using assessments from other learning areas, assessors should ensure that drafting and general guidance includes consideration of formal text structures and overall progression of ideas.

Formal style: Performance Criterion 1.4 and Guidance Information 9

Learners will craft their text using a formal style appropriate to the specified audience and academic purpose. Slang, colloquialisms, contractions and use of the first-person point of view are not usually found in academic writing, so any use of these informal features needs to be appropriate to the specified academic context. At mid-B2, learners will use a variety of complex grammatical structures and a good range of lower frequency vocabulary related to the topic.

Consistent use of appropriate forms: Guidance Information 5 and Performance Criterion 1.5

This GI and Performance Criterion (PC) relate to the accuracy of the use of lexical and grammatical forms. Some inaccuracies are permissible, but the learner must demonstrate control with only minor and occasional structural, grammatical, spelling and punctuation lapses. The writing must be easily and clearly understood. The Achieved exemplar illustrates the writing accuracy requirements at mid-B2 level for a crafted text.

Inclusion of resource materials: Guidance Information 8

Assessors need to see evidence of learners' researched materials (whether provided by the assessor or the candidate) to ensure against plagiarism and to see that content from these materials has been integrated into the learners' own texts. They also need to be included in the external moderation submission.

Integration of source material: Performance Criterion 1.6

The learner's text must do more than focus on information gleaned from readings. Sufficient researched material needs to be incorporated into the crafted text to show that the ideas developed are based on and supported by that research. This will be demonstrated with the use of quotation, accurate summarising and paraphrasing. There will also be some analytical interpretation, synthesis and informed judgement that is based on this source material.

Acknowledging references: Performance Criterion 1.7

All source material used should be acknowledged appropriately, both within the text and in a reference list. APA is a common form of referencing, but other established styles such as Harvard are acceptable. All universities have websites with guidelines for recognised formats. The Achieved exemplar illustrates appropriate acknowledgement of source material.


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