National Moderator's Reports

February 2022

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Download PDF: English National Moderator's Report (PDF, 141KB)

The following report gives feedback to assist assessors with general issues and trends that have been identified during external moderation of the internally assessed English standards in 2021. It provides further insights from moderation material viewed throughout the year.


Using Internal Assessment Evidence Gathering Templates

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The purpose of the Internal Assessment Evidence Gathering Template is to help teachers identify and record evidence of student achievement seen or heard within the teaching and learning programme. These templates do not signal a reduction in what is accepted for each grade, but rather a means of summarising evidence for reporting achievement when more formal assessment has not been possible.

These templates must be viewed in conjunction with the assessment advice forwarded to schools, in order to ensure that valid, credible and reliable assessment has occurred before the standard is awarded. Further guidance can be found here.

Where evidence gathering templates have been used to identify evidence in lieu of a formal assessment opportunity, these should not be sent in for moderation.

Assessor Support

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The Best Practice Workshops (online and face-to-face) offered by Assessment and Moderation Services continue to be viewed by the sector as significantly contributing to improved assessor practice:

“The workshop helped to review my own knowledge, and great to share ideas.”
“It was great having time to challenge my thinking in assessment.”

Based on the success of the ‘on request’ model and the ability to have targeted support, Assessment and Moderation Services will continue delivering this support model in 2022. Workshops or presentation slots can be requested to provide targeted support to regional or national audiences.

Additionally, we will continue to run the Transforming Assessment Praxis programme, an online course relevant to all subjects which helps assessors learn about re-contextualising assessment resources and collecting evidence in different ways to better meet the needs of learners.

New online subject-specific short courses introduced this year have complemented the traditional workshops. These can be accessed using your Education Sector Logon. Courses available for English include:

  • Making Assessor Judgements (91475, 91478, 91106)
  • 90853 Forming inquiry questions
  • 91101 Crafted and controlled writing
  • 91107 Analyse an aspect of visual text.

Check the NCEA subject pages on the NZQA website regularly, as more online courses will be added throughout 2022.

More detailed information, including how to request or register for a workshop or online course, can be found on our Assessor Support pages or by emailing

Creating a visual text for Level 3: 91477

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There are a range of submission types for the Level 3 ‘Create a fluent and coherent visual text which develops, sustains, and structures ideas using verbal and visual language’ standard. This standard assesses the ‘Making Meaning: Presenting’ strand, and is a progression from the Level 1 ‘Create a visual text’ and Level 2 ‘Create a crafted and controlled visual and verbal text’ standards. The requirements for increasingly sophisticated ideas and the fluent use of a wider range of visual language features show this development.

There is moderator agreement with visual texts that commonly:

  • operate primarily in the visual mode – ideas are sustained through the visual elements
  • sustain ideas at the appropriate curriculum level
  • show a controlled, precise use of a wide range of visual language features
  • show visual coherence over the whole text (this is part of using visual language fluently)
  • use images sourced from elsewhere as a starting point – manipulation and incorporation of the student’s own visual content is needed.

Submissions that do not meet the standard commonly:

  • communicate ideas primarily through written or oral language
  • present straightforward ideas
  • use visual language features without precision
  • do not yet have visual coherence across the whole text
  • rely mostly or entirely on images from other sources, without much or any manipulation of them.


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Changes to moderation requirement for 2022

Changes have been made to what schools are required to send in for moderation in 2022. Only 6 samples of student evidence must be sent in, one sample each at N, A, M, E, and two more from A, M, E. There will be no Level 1 external moderation, unless requested by the school.

Outcome statements in external Moderation Reports

Moderation Report outcomes are reported using consistency statements. These are not based on a numerical assessment of how many grades the moderator agreed with, but on a qualitative assessment of how the overall judgements align with the standard.

Consistent” is used where clear and accurate understanding of all (or most) aspects of the standard have been demonstrated. There may be some misunderstandings, but these are minor.

Not yet consistent” does not imply major issues on the part of the assessor. This is used where a clear understanding is shown of some aspects of the standard, and any issues can be identified and corrected using the feedforward in the Moderation Report.

Not consistent” is used where there are significant issues with the assessor decisions. This may include issues such as assessment materials not being at the correct curriculum level, or when the intent or criteria of the standard has been misunderstood.

Moderating assessment materials

For most moderation submissions in 2021, the assessment materials were not moderated, as most assessment tasks were variations of the NZQA Approved tasks developed by the Ministry of Education.

NZQA welcomes the submission of innovative assessment tasks. An overview of case studies showcasing how innovative assessment practices have been implemented in schools can be found on the Spotlights homepage, with the full case studies on the Future State section of the NZQA website.

Please click on this link to gives your feedback about this report. 

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