Level 2

Geography clarifications

Show: Geography homepage | All Geography clarifications

91246: Explain aspects of a geographic topic at a global scale

Updated December 2017. This document has been updated to reflect the change in wording from “causes” to “factors and/or processes” - version 3 of the standard.

The Conditions of Assessment provide guidance on the input from the teacher relating to topic selection and provision of resources. It is strongly recommended that the resources include evidence to enable a spatial or temporal pattern to be fully described. These resources could be world maps and/or statistical evidence which clearly illustrate the spatial and/or temporal pattern.

Selection of a geographic topic

The topic needs to be clearly geographic in nature, and relate to the ‘Place and Environment’ conceptual strand of the New Zealand Curriculum. Sociological topics could distract students from approaching the topic from a geographic perspective, applying geographic concepts and using geographic terminology. Evidence of the global spatial dimension must be explicit throughout the report.

For example, the topic of human trafficking could be tightly defined to focus on a clustered and/or concentrated spatial pattern of origin regions. To show the geographic perspective and demonstrate a people/environment interaction, the environmental conditions and poverty could then be used to explain the spatial pattern.

A description of a spatial or temporal pattern on a global scale using geographic terminology and concepts

Spatial patterns are the most commonly used at this level. However, an issue arises when students are instructed to draw their own maps to illustrate a spatial pattern. Often no discernible pattern can be identified, and this hinders the student’s ability to explain a pattern (Explanatory Note 2).

Factors and/or processes that contribute to the pattern

This aspect of the explanation needs to continue to focus on the identified pattern. Explicit links are required between the factors and/or processes and the pattern, in order to demonstrate understanding of the causal relationship. Conceptual understandings of pattern, process, interaction, etc. are fundamental to this standard.


Skip to main page content Accessibility page with list of access keys Home Page Site Map Contact Us newzealand.govt.nz