National Moderator's Reports

February 2020

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Download PDF: Home Economics National Moderator's Report (PDF, 147KB)

The following report gives feedback to assist assessors with general issues and trends that have been identified during external moderation of the internal Home Economics standards in 2019.

It does not clarify specific standards but provides further insights from moderation material viewed throughout the year.


Awarding Excellence

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When making judgement for Excellence, it needs to be ensured that all indicators of the Excellence criteria in the standard have been fully addressed. These are outlined in the Explanatory notes. The quality of evidence provided should also reflect the curriculum level. If the evidence demonstrates that the Excellence criteria have been only partially met, then the grade awarded cannot be Excellence. This is critical in distinguishing between high Merit and Excellence.

Consideration also needs to be given to the overall submission, such as succinctness and clarity.

It is appropriate to provide specific guidance on how to structure reports to improve quality and reduce quantity. Students who focus on key determinants and/or key stakeholders and use relevant, concise quotes to support their understanding produce a more critical analysis.

For further discussion of Excellence at Level 3, refer to the 2019 National Moderators Report.

Collecting evidence

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Opportunities are encouraged that allow students to collect evidence through different modes, such as blogs, video clips, etc. Such opportunities allow students to have agency on how best to demonstrate what they know.

The Home Economics Conditions of Assessment on Te Kete Ipurangi (TKI) provide guidance at all levels, and recommend that assessment design reflects the ways in which students have been learning. Examples of a variety of ways to collect evidence for the assessor and the learner are also provided. Guidelines for collecting evidence during group and practical work such as individual reflections, regular discussions and checkpoints have also been included.

Student wellbeing

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Where students are guided in how to present their evidence succinctly, the quality of their responses improves. When students are aware of the concept that quantity is not an indicator of quality, this also helps to reduce workload pressures.

Well-being of students in their learning and assessment should be a significant consideration in programmes. Clearer guidelines need to be provided for students regarding the quality and volume of evidence required.

In Home Economics, students sometimes provide a wide variety of evidence when a more focused approach would reduce the volume and better meet the requirements of the standard. Providing guidance on topic choices that are familiar to students and have been explored, discussed, debated and challenged in class ensure that students will feel more confident at completing an assessment.

Students who do well are choosing topics that are current, relevant to young people, and with is a good variety of New Zealand evidence to support their critical analysis. For example, over-consumption of sugary drinks or foods have proven to be successful topics.

In terms of student wellbeing, it is also timely to consider the importance of positive contexts and guidance regarding potentially ‘dark themes’ or inappropriate material. While the need for self-expression and realism is not disputed, the mental and physical wellbeing of students in their learning and assessment should be a significant consideration in programmes.

Dark themes are not an issue in Home Economics moderation.

Assessor Support

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The Best Practice Workshops (online and face-to-face) offered by the Assessment and Moderation Team continue to be viewed by the sector as significantly contributing to improved assessor practice:

"The workshop helped to review my own knowledge, and great to share ideas."

"It was great having time to challenge my thinking in assessment."

Based on the success of the ‘on request’ model and the ability to have targeted support, the Assessment and Moderation Team will continue delivering this support model in 2020. Workshops or presentation slots can be requested to provide targeted support to regional or national audiences.

Additionally, we will continue to run the generic Transforming Assessment Praxis Programme, an online programme which helps assessors learn about re-contextualising assessment resources and collecting evidence in different ways to better meet the needs of their learners.

More detailed information, including how to request or register for a workshop, can be found on our Best Practice Workshop pages or by emailing

E-Learning modules are being developed for selected Home Economics standards. One is currently available for 91303.

Observations from selected standards

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For 91299, evidence for this Level 2 standard should reflect a progression from the Level 1 standard on individual food choices (1.1). For example, students who focus on the specific food needs of people like high energy users rather than one individual with specific food preferences tend to provide more depth in their analysis.

While students generally explain the issues related to the provision of food from a personal perspective, those securing achievement for this standard connect or link their responses to the specific food needs from an interpersonal and societal perspective as well.

The Te Kete Ipurangi (TKI) Resource enables students to achieve this standard but they do need to extend their investigative activity to gather evidence beyond the personal perspective. For example, students who explain the interpersonal and societal perspective by clearly focusing on the people with specific food needs and linking health enhancing strategies to address their requirements, demonstrate the depth of understanding required at this level.

Students who respond at Merit and Excellence connect strategies such as food selection and reading labels at the supermarket, to justify through detailed reasoning why the requirements of the people with specific food needs have been met.

For 91468, understanding of the phrase ‘ethical dilemma’ is critical to achieving this standard. While it is clearly defined in the Explanatory Notes, some students confuse it with a nutritional issue (3.1).

A quality analysis explains what the food related ethical dilemma is, why it is a dilemma, who the key stakeholders are and which groups in society are mostly affected. Students who show understanding of the contrasting stakeholder viewpoints and perspectives and the ethical principles that underpin their beliefs have successfully achieved this standard. Students’ opinion of the stakeholders’ action and/or perspective is not required.

Critical analysis for Excellence explores and shows insight into the impacts on society. Successful students use evidence to support the contrasting viewpoints and the student’s understanding of the dilemma. Consequences and challenges such as social justice and equitable outcomes are explored for all people directly or indirectly affected by the dilemma.


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Outcome statements in external moderation reports

In 2017, moderation report outcome statements changed from ‘Confidence’ statements to ‘Consistency’ statements, as explained in an NZQA Circular at the time.

The previous FOUR ‘Confidence’ statements were changed to THREE Consistency statements. This reduction in the number of categories of statement has, in some cases, resulted in moderation report outcomes previously noted as ‘Confident’ now being noted as ‘Not Yet Consistent’.

It is important to recognise that ‘Not Yet Consistent’ does not imply major issues on the part of the assessor, but that the aspects highlighted can be easily addressed through the advice given in the report.

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