National Moderator's Reports

February 2022

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Download PDF: Physical Education National Moderator's Report (PDF, 162KB)

The following report gives feedback to assist assessors with general issues and trends that have been identified during external moderation of the internally assessed Physical Education standards in 2021. It provides further insights from moderation material viewed throughout the year.


Using Internal Assessment Evidence Gathering Templates

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The purpose of the Internal Assessment Evidence Gathering Template is to help teachers identify and record evidence of student achievement seen or heard within the teaching and learning programme. These templates do not signal a reduction in what is accepted for each grade, but rather a means of summarising evidence for reporting achievement when more formal assessment has not been possible.

These templates must be viewed in conjunction with the assessment advice forwarded to schools, in order to ensure that valid, credible and reliable assessment has occurred before the standard is awarded. Further guidance can be found here.

Where evidence gathering templates have been used to identify evidence in lieu of a formal assessment opportunity, these should not be sent in for moderation.

In Physical Education, moderators often observed teachers using the Evidence Gathering Templates as a marking schedule. Also, these templates are providing support for students about the Achievement Criteria requirements of standards.

Assessor Support

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The Best Practice Workshops (online and face-to-face) offered by Assessment and Moderation Services continue to be viewed by the sector as significantly contributing to improved assessor practice:

“The workshop helped to review my own knowledge, and great to share ideas.”
“It was great having time to challenge my thinking in assessment.”

Based on the success of the ‘on request’ model and the ability to have targeted support, Assessment and Moderation Services will continue delivering this support model in 2022. Workshops or presentation slots can be requested to provide targeted support to regional or national audiences.

Additionally, we will continue to run the Transforming Assessment Praxis programme, an online course relevant to all subjects which helps assessors learn about re-contextualising assessment resources and collecting evidence in different ways to better meet the needs of learners.

New online subject-specific short courses introduced this year have complemented the traditional workshops. These can be accessed using your Education Sector Logon. Courses available for Physical Education include:

  • Making Assessor Judgements (91500, 91502)
  • 91789 The Process of Devising Strategies
  • 91335 Linking Outcomes to Aims
  • 90966 What is an Explanation? (coming in Term 1).

More detailed information, including how to request or register for a workshop or online course, can be found on our Assessor Support pages or by emailing

Contexts seen in moderation

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Students have selected a wide range of physical activity contexts that were relevant to their own learning. For example, in 91502 current physical activity issues examined include haka, concussion, gender equity, gender stereotyping, transgender issues and mental health in sport. Current physical activity trends examined include CrossFit, HIIT and home-based exercise in the recent ‘lockdown’ environment. Current physical activity events include Aotearoa Super Rugby, regional Kapa haka, the National Secondary Schools Waka Ama Championships, the 36th America’s Cup, the Tokyo Olympics and Iron Man New Zealand in 2021.

Often students participate in the physical activity, trend or event, allowing them to draw from their own contextual knowledge, helping their understanding. For example, students taking part in the Iron Man New Zealand event in Taupō as officials, or taking part in Kapa haka events.

Collecting evidence in practical standards

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In standards 91330 and 91501, moderators often observed a lack of assessor evidence showing consistency in the demonstration of the elements and skills for the selected physical activity, which is required for Merit and Excellence.

Examples of good practice include a collection of assessor evidence of the elements and skills demonstrated over a period of time, which include observation dates and commentary. This will allow valid and fair judgements to be made when determining consistency.

Student wellbeing

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Where students are guided in how to present their evidence succinctly, the quality of their responses improves. When students are aware of the concept that quantity is not an indicator of quality, this also helps to reduce workload pressures.

In Physical Education, it is pleasing to see a reduction in the amount of evidence produced at Level 3. For example, for standard 91500, students are using the most relevant biophysical principles and socio-cultural factors when evaluating the effectiveness of the programme rather than all of the principles and methods of training, skill learning principles, and biomechanical principles and factors.

Questioning and challenging assumptions

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Most of the Level 3 standards require students to question and challenge assumptions relevant to the standard and the selected context.

Successful students at Excellence level can clearly identify assumptions relating to their topic and question, and can challenge these assumptions from different perspectives, rather than supporting. For example, ‘this is not always the case…’, ‘I can challenge this assumption because the research shows…’, ‘this could be challenged more whether…’, ‘I wonder what would have been the result if I had tried a different strategy’ or ‘I wonder if my assumptions are untrue because I saw…’

Students can also relate these assumptions to the topic of the standard. For example, in standards 91498 and 91500 students discuss assumptions in the context of their own experiences. Similarly, for standard 91505, students can relate these assumptions specifically to the selected contemporary leadership principles and how they are applied.


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In 91502, moderators often observed a lack of conclusions drawn about the current physical activity event, trend or issue.

Students who are successful in this standard draw conclusions about the impact or potential impact of the current physical activity event, trend or issue on New Zealand society. To be successful, the conclusions must be justified and supported with researched evidence. These conclusions could be drawn using relevant socio-cultural factors such as societal, political, economic, environmental, ethical, cultural or historical.


In standard 91503, moderators often observed a lack of a clearly identified physical activity issue for the targeted individual or group. Also frequently noticed was the failure to review each step of the Action Competence Learning Process (ACLP), or not making clear judgements about the impact of the health promotion process on the identified issue, supported with specific examples from the actions taken.

For Achieved, students who are successful can identify a physical activity issue that is influencing participation for the targeted individual or group, as well as explaining why it is an issue for this individual or group.

They can review all steps (identifying an issue, developing insight and knowledge, vision, understanding, planning, acting and evaluating) of the health promotion process (ACLP). For example, identifying if the step was helpful, explaining the reasons why, and including specific examples from the action can be used to support the review of each step.

They can also make clear judgements about the impact of the health promotion process (ACLP) on the participation of the targeted individual or group involved. These judgements must be justified and supported with specific examples from the implementation of the process. For example, what was the level of participation resulting from using the health promotion process? How do you know? What feedback did these individuals or groups provide?


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Changes to moderation requirement for 2022

Changes have been made to what schools are required to send in for moderation in 2022. Only 6 samples of student evidence must be sent in, one sample each at N, A, M, E, and two more from A, M, E. There will be no level 1 external moderation, unless requested by the school.

Outcome statements in external Moderation Reports

Moderation Report outcomes are reported using consistency statements. These are not based on a numerical assessment of how many grades the moderator agreed with, but on a qualitative assessment of how the overall judgements align with the standard.

Consistent” is used where clear and accurate understanding of all (or most) aspects of the standard have been demonstrated. There may be some misunderstandings, but these are minor.

Not yet consistent” does not imply major issues on the part of the assessor. This is used where a clear understanding is shown of some aspects of the standard, and any issues can be identified and corrected using the feedforward in the Moderation Report.

Not consistent” is used where there are significant issues with the assessor decisions. This may include issues such as assessment materials not being at the correct curriculum level, or when the intent or criteria of the standard have been misunderstood.

Moderating assessment materials

For most moderation submissions in 2021, the assessment materials were not moderated, as most assessment tasks were variations of the NZQA Approved tasks developed by the Ministry of Education.

NZQA welcomes the submission of innovative assessment tasks. An overview of case studies showcasing how innovative assessment practices have been implemented in schools can be found on the Spotlights homepage, with the full case studies on the Future State section of the NZQA website.

Physical Education subject page update

The updated ‘Guidelines for assessing against standards 91330 and 91501’ are now available on the Physical Education subject page on the NZQA website. These include a new process for assessing students with disabilities, developed collaboratively with Halberg Foundation and Paralympic NZ.

Please click on this link to give your feedback about this report.

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