Level 1

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91045: Use planning tools to guide the technological development of an outcome to address a brief

Updated February 2017. This document has been updated in its entirety to address new issues that have arisen from moderation.


Students are required to plan and manage the development of a conceptual design and/or a prototype. The emphasis should be on planning for the development of the outcome. As such, planning should run parallel with outcome development. Students should develop an initial plan and undertake ongoing review of the plan as the project progresses to ensure successful completion of the outcome.

For Achieved, planning must ensure that the outcome is completed, evidence of which should be provided, for example a final conceptual design, an image/screen shot of a prototype, or assessor attestation. An explanatory paper that clarifies and defines the nature of effective planning can be found on Technology Online.

Addressing a brief

Students must have a brief, including specifications, against which planning to develop an outcome can occur. The brief determines the scope of the project (project boundaries) and enables students to make initial predictions regarding key stages, timeline and required resources.

Planning tools

Curriculum level 6 expects students to analyse their own and other’s past and current practices to make an informed selection of planning tools best suited to plan their outcome development.

The planning tools used should enable the students to record and manage project stages, review points, resources, and key planning decisions, and monitor progress. Explanatory Note 3 lists a range of planning tools that could be used. Whichever planning tools are selected, they must also be used to identify and manage all resources (not just time).

Key Stages

Students are required to break the development process of the outcome into a set of interconnecting tasks/goals.

Planning actions within key stage

Students are required to go beyond just identifying project steps (technological practice) within the key stage. Planned actions should include planning for and monitoring progress, recording key planning decisions, reviewing key stage and review points, and storing information.

Key planning decisions

Evidence for this involves using planning tools to record the reasons for key decisions regarding management of time and resources such as materials and components, tools and equipment, software and hardware, stakeholder interactions, specialist knowledge and skills, research information, etc.

For Merit and Excellence, students are required to review key planning decisions in an ongoing manner at review and/or critical review points to ensure completion of the outcome.

Excellence also requires students to prioritise resources in a manner that ensures effective completion of the outcome. For example, due to time constraints, the student opts to use their sketching skills to draw design ideas rather than learning how to draw digitally in Google SketchUp, or using research information to support some of the design features during design development rather than functional modelling all features to save time and money.

Their planning tools should reflect their decisions from the critical review points and show how their priorities may have changed supported by reasons.

The following table provides visual representation of the achievement criteria.




establishing key stages and resources required.


prioritising resources to ensure completion of the outcome.


identifying review points.


identifying critical review points for key stages.

planning actions to be undertaken within each key stage.

identifying key planning decisions

reviewing key planning decisions.

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