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91347: Demonstrate understanding of advanced concepts used to make products

Updated May 2015. This document has been updated in its entirety to address new issues that have arisen from moderation.

Accepted conventions

When students are describing the accepted conventions used when making products, they should be referring to accepted standards and methods. Photographs of existing products can help to describe flush, symmetry, tolerance, etc. (as listed in Explanatory Note 3). Students should be discussing how these conventions guide construction in similar and diverse contexts.

Safe practices

When explaining safe practices, students should explain:

  • strategies to manage the safety of those in the work space
  • the responsibilities (both legal and ethical) of students/employees
  • the teachers/employers reporting systems and liability.

Students should be exploring similarities and differences between safe practice in classroom and industrial environments.


Contexts refer to the wider physical and social environment, including the scale of the project.

Diverse contexts might include:

  • the home/class workshop where smallish products are made
  • the building industry where floors/foundations are laid or precast walls go up
  • an engineering environment where hydro dams or under sea-water tunnels are constructed.

Developing understandings

It may be easier for students to show their understanding after they have made a product. These final understandings might be informed by some initial investigations before the product is made.

Not having made a product does not exclude students from achieving this standard. However, to demonstrate how accepted conventions are achieved, it is expected that students will require access to materials. This might include, for example, materials used to make a product, to reinforce it, and to achieve particular finishes. Other materials may be required to understand conventions applied in similar and diverse contexts.

Students will more than likely also need to explore a range of existing products in order to discuss the materials and techniques used to achieve particular quality features. Industry visits have been valuable in supporting students to develop understandings.

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